According to some data, the ancestors of modern people started to develop lands belonging to Kazakhstan, as long as million years ago. Within this, the most ancient extant evidence of human tribes habitat in this territory - Tamgaly petroglyphs - goes back to the period of from XIV c. BC - VI-VIII cc. In 2004, Tamgaly archeological landscape petroglyphs were included in UNESCO World Heritage List.
During the Bronze Age, four thousand years ago, the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by the tribes engaged in crop farming and cattle breeding, which were skilled warriors, who developed the chariot. At that time, copper fields which are used nowadays – Zhezkazgan and Sayak copper cuts - started to be developed.
In VI -III cc. BC in Zhetysu, in the territory of the present South-East Kazakhstan, the first state of “Sakas” (Greeks called them “Scythians”) appeared.
Saka tsars also were high priests. Sakas had their own writing system, mythology and the world-class outstanding art, which is called “zoomorphic ornament art” in the scientific literature. Up to now, the masterpieces made of gold and bronze decorate the exhibits of the world museums. The most famous is the “Golden man”.
In the second half of VI c., the term “turk” was fixed in the written sources. West-Turk, Tyurgesh, Karluk khanates, Oghuz, Kara-khanid, Kimek, Kypchak states existed alternately in the territory of Kazakhstan since VI century till the end of XIII century.
The Great Silk Way ran across the territory of Kazakhstan – the system of caravan tracks from China to the Middle East and European countries. Goods and cultural traditions of the East and West, religious beliefs, different types of arts: painting, architecture and music were spread via the Silk Way. In the middle of XV c. – Kazakh Khanate was established, this was the first stage in establishing Kazakh statehood.
Modern and recent history
The prosperity of Kazakh Khanate during the reign of the first khans, marked by the lands extension, strengthening of the state system, active foreign policy, then was replaced by enhanced internal strife. Since the start of XVIII c., Dzhungar invasions to Kazakh lands increased. In such difficult economic and political situation, the issue on joining Russia came up and this process lasted about 150 years.
After the revolution in 1917, the Soviet power was established in Kazakhstan.
Kazakh SSR was transformed to the Republic of Kazakhstan, state independence of the republic was declared.
Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site was closed.
Kazakhstan joined UN, OSCE and ECO.
Kazakhstan joined Non-proliferation Treaty as nuclear-free state.
New Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted.
Tenge – was introduced as the national currency.
“Kazakhstan – 2030. Prosperity, safety and ever-growing welfare of all the Kazakhstanis” Strategy was approved.
National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan was established.
“Samruk” public holding was established in order to increase the efficient asset management of the largest state corporations.
“Kazyna” Sustainable Development Fund was established in order to increase investments and innovative activity in non-raw-materials sector of Kazakhstan’s economy.
The resolution on directing revenues of the raw material sector (including from oil sales) to the National Fund was approved, therefore, the state budget is formed without “oil money”.
The plan on the country’s economy and financial system stabilization was adopted.
The main operator on the stabilization plan implementation will be newly-created “Samruk-Kazyna” Fund
State program on forced industrial and innovative development for 2010-2014 was approved.
Customs Union with Russia and Belarus was established.
Kazakhstan chaired OSCE.
Within the Customs Union, customs control procedures were abolished at the borders of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.
Astana was declared the venue of “EXPO-2017” on the theme “Future Energy”.
“Common economic space” (Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan) was established.
Agreement on establishment of Eurasian Economic Union (Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus) and on joining of the Republic of Armenia and Kyrgyz Republic that will come into force on January 1, 2015, was signed.
Agreement on Eurasian Economic Union (Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan) entered into force.